top of page


  1. What is sepsis? Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published August 9, 2022. Accessed February 27, 2023.

  2. SCCM: Surviving sepsis campaign guidelines 2021. Society of Critical Care Medicine (SCCM). Published October 4, 2021. Accessed March 8, 2023.

  3. Flood P, Rathmell JP, Urman RD. Stoelting's Pharmacology & Physiology in Anesthetic Practice. Edition 6. United States of America: Wolters Kluwer; 2021: 1374-1385.

  4. Chen JP, Fang XM, Jin XJ, et al. Expert consensus on the perioperative management of patients with sepsis. World J Emerg Med. 2015;6(4):245-260. doi:10.5847/wjem.j.1920-8642.2015.04.001

  5. Bughrara N, Cha S, Safa R, Pustavoitau A. Perioperative Management of Patients with Sepsis and Septic Shock, Part I: Systematic Approach. Anesthesiol Clin. 2020;38(1):107-122. doi:10.1016/j.anclin.2019.10.013

  6. Low blood pressure (hypotension). Mayo Clinic. Published May 14, 2022. Accessed February 17, 2023.

  7. Dysfunction definition & meaning. Merriam-Webster. Published 2023. Accessed February 17, 2023.

  8. Wallace HA, Regunath H. Fluid Resuscitation. National Library of Medicine. Published January 2022. Accessed February 17, 2023.

  9. Melnyk B, Fineout-Overholt E. Evidence-Based Practice in Nursing and Healthcare. Edition 4. United States of America: Wolters Kluwer; 2019: 465-469.

  10. Caironi P, Tognoni G, Masson S, et al. Albumin replacement in patients with severe sepsis or septic shock. N Engl J Med. 2014;370(15):1412-1421. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1305727

  11. Wiedermann CJ, Joannidis M. Nephroprotective Potential of Human Albumin Infusion: A Narrative Review. Gastroenterol Res Pract. 2015;2015:912839. doi:10.1155/2015/912839

  12. Martin, G., Basset, P. Crystalloids vs. colloids for fluid resuscitation in the Intensive Care Unit: A systematic review and meta-analysis. 2018. J Crit Care. 2019;50:144-154. doi: 10.1016/j.jcrc.2018.11.031

  13. Philips CA, Maiwall R, Sharma MK, et al. Comparison of 5% human albumin and normal saline for fluid resuscitation in sepsis induced hypotension among patients with cirrhosis (FRISC study): a randomized controlled trial. Hepatol Int. 2021;15(4):983-994. doi:10.1007/s12072-021-10164-z

  14. Liu C, Li H, Peng Z, et al. Inclusion of Albumin in the Initial Resuscitation of Adult Patients with Medical Sepsis or Septic Shock: a Propensity Score-Matched Analysis. Shock. 2021;56(6):956-963. doi:10.1097/SHK.0000000000001810

  15. Patel A, Laffan MA, Waheed U, Brett SJ. Randomised trials of human albumin for adults with sepsis: systematic review and meta-analysis with trial sequential analysis of all-cause mortality [published correction appears in BMJ. 2014;349:g4850]. BMJ. 2014;349:g4561. Published 2014 Jul 22. doi:10.1136/bmj.g4561

  16. Zhou S, Zeng Z, Wei H, Sha T, An S. Early combination of albumin with crystalloids administration might be beneficial for the survival of septic patients: a retrospective analysis from MIMIC-IV database. Ann Intensive Care. 2021;11(1):42. Published 2021 Mar 10. doi:10.1186/s13613-021-00830-8

  17. Rochwerg B, Alhazzani W, Sindi A, et al. Fluid resuscitation in sepsis: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med. 2014;161(5):347-355. doi:10.7326/M14-0178

  18. Lewis SR, Pritchard MW, Evans DJW, et al. Colloids versus crystalloids for fluid resuscitation in critically ill people. Cochraine Database of Systematic Reviews 2018, Issue 8. Art. No.: CD000567. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD000567.pub7. Accessed 26 February 2023.

  19. Wiedermann CJ. Phases of fluid management and the roles of human albumin solution in perioperative and critically ill patients. Curr Med Res Opin. 2020;36(12):1961-1973. doi:10.1080/03007995.2020.1840970

  20. Tseng CH, Chen TT, Wu MY, Chan MC, Shih MC, Tu YK. Resuscitation fluid types in sepsis, surgical, and trauma patients: A systematic review and Sequential Network Meta-Analyses. Critical Care. 2020;24(1). doi:10.1186/s13054-020-03419-y

  21. Ge C, Peng Q, Chen W, Li W, Zhang L, Ai Y. Association between albumin infusion and outcomes in patients with acute kidney injury and septic shock. Sci Rep. 2021;11(1):24083. Published 2021 Dec 16. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-03122-0

  22. Johns Hopkins Nursing Evidence-Based Practice Appendix C: Evidence Level and Quality Guide. Accessed February 7, 2021

  23. Christiansen S, Iverson C, Flanagin A, et al. AMA Manual of Style: A Guide for Authors and Editors. 11th ed. Oxford University Press; 2020.

bottom of page